Dezember 1948 die Näherin Gertrud Müller (1909–2003); drei Monate nach der Geburt ihres gemeinsamen Sohnes Frank (1948–2019). "[35], On 16 August 1947, Serov ordered the creation of Kommissariat 5, the first German political police since the defeat of Nazi Germany. Somit zeichnet er verantwortlich für den flächendeckenden Ausbau des Überwachungssystems der DDR. Now we also know how the Stasi used those files. Video Footage: Erich Mielke before the "Volkskammer," 13 November 1989. Im Sommer 1941 nahm Mielke eine weitere Identität als „Richard Hebel“ an und erbat bei dem KPD-Funktionär Willi Kreikemeyer in Marseille Hilfe bei der Ausreise nach Mexiko und materielle Unterstützung, die er erhielt. An hour later, they declared martial law in East Berlin.[74]. According to John Koehler, "At that time, the city administration, including the police, was under the control of the Allied Control Commission, which consisted of U.S., British, French, and Soviet military officers. 1989 beschäftigte das MfS etwa 91.000 hauptamtliche und 173.000 inoffizielle Mitarbeiter (IM). Erich Mielke was the Minister for State Security, and one of the most influential figures in making East Germany the rigorous police state that it was. [99], Another tactic was for Stasi military advisers assigned to African and Middle Eastern countries to request the arrest of West German tourists. Seitdem habe Erich Honecker in Mielke 'einen Freund gesehen.' Every detail was foreseen, from where the doorbell was located on the house of each person to be arrested to the adequate supply of barbed wire and the rules of dress and etiquette in the camps..."[141], However, when Mielke sent the orders, codenamed "Shield" (German: Schild),[139] to each local Stasi precinct to begin the planned arrests, he was not obeyed. Mielke kam Ende Mai 1940 in das Lager Cyprien, aus dem er im August 1940 nach Toulouse flüchtete. Die Staatsanwaltschaft Berlin verzichtete auf ein Auslieferungsersuchen für Mielke. Er verließ die Schule wegen Schwierigkeiten beim Erlernen der klassischen Sprachen bereits nach einem Jahr und absolvierte anschließend bis 1927 eine Lehre als Speditionskaufmann. [8] Nachdem deutsche Truppen infolge der Landung der Amerikaner in Nordafrika im November 1942 Südfrankreich besetzt hatten, löste sich die Marseiller Emigrantenszene auf. Overnight, the Soviets (and the Stasi) started to arrest hundreds of people. The three deemed most culpable, Michael Klause, Max Matern, and Friedrich Bröde were sentenced to death. Von 1957 bis 1989 war Erich Mielke (1907-2000) Chef der DDR-Staatssicherheit. [129], According to John Koehler, "Murder, kidnapping, extortion, bank robbery, and arson were felonies under the East German criminal code. The Captain's oldest daughter was forced to drastically rush her planned wedding in order to keep her sisters from being put in an orphanage. (…) Der eigentliche Skandal an diesem Tag aber war nicht Mielkes Auftritt, sondern wie die meisten der 477 anwesenden engen Gefolgsleute mit ihm umgingen und sich zu ‚Saubermännern‘ erklären wollten. With the approval of the Soviets, Mielke's commanding officer from Spain and in the K5, Wilhelm Zaisser, was appointed as the Stasi's head. Not knowing whether the sergeant could talk and identify the attackers, Kippenberger was taking no chances. [154] To his shock, the Volkskammer responded with boos, whistles, and catcalls. When she visited Mielke's grave, Eastley found that it had become a shrine for adherents of Ostalgie.[177]. Zaisser conceded that the whole Politburo was responsible for the "accelerated construction of socialism" and of the subsequent fallout. Notwithstanding Abakumov's objections, however, recruitment into the K-5 began almost immediately. [40] He admitted—truthfully—fighting on the Republican side during the Spanish Civil War, but claimed—falsely—that he had been released from the French internment camps and had worked in Belgium for an underground Communist newspaper under the code name "Gaston". Without exception, one tenant in every building was designated as a watchdog reporting to an area representative of the Volkspolizei...In turn, the police officer was the Stasi's man. The East German Communists used anything they could against West Germany, including the... fears by Western countries and Jews that a new Nazism could be growing in West Germany. Some 160,000 had passed through the concentration camps, and of these about 65,000 had died, 36,000 had been shipped to the Soviet Gulag, and another 46,000 had been freed. [85], Violations of the oath resulted in expulsion from the Stasi and blacklisting from all but the most menial jobs. [16] Mielke wurde des Mordes angeklagt. [6], In der Endphase des Spanischen Bürgerkrieges begab sich Mielke im Februar 1939 über die Pyrenäen nach Frankreich, wo er zusammen mit anderen Interbrigadisten zunächst interniert wurde, dann aber nach Kontaktaufnahme mit der KPD-Leitung im Mai 1939 auftragsgemäß nach Belgien ging. Execute! After German reunification in 1990, Mielke was prosecuted (1992), convicted, and incarcerated (1993) for the 1931 murders of Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck. His precinct included the area around KPD headquarters, which made it the most dangerous in the city. I set myself before you!" Nach der Auflösung der DDR eröffnete das Landgericht Berlin im November 1991 das Hauptverfahren gegen Mielke wegen der „Bülowplatzsache“. By March 1946, SPD members outnumbered KPD members by more than 100,000. [27] The KPD's murder of Captain Anlauf thus left their three daughters as orphans. [83] However, starting in 1971 Mielke was required to provide a detailed intelligence briefing to party secretary Erich Honecker each Tuesday, directly following the weekly Politburo meeting. [143] During a session on 10 October 1989, Mielke delivered a report attacking Honecker's desire to violently suppress the demonstrations rather than offer concessions. [2] Infolge einer Begabtenauswahl erhielt Mielke 1923 einen Freiplatz am Köllnischen Gymnasium. Although Moscow's German Communist community was decimated during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge,[34] Mielke survived and was promoted. Brigade sowie Aufgaben als „Kaderoffizier“ (Politoffizier) in der 27. In addition to his role as head of the Stasi, Mielke was also a General in the National People's Army (Nationale Volksarmee), and a member of the SED's ruling Politburo. The Volkskammer's President, Günther Maleuda, interrupted Mielke and urged Czok to speak. ", "Erich Mielke, Powerful Head of Stasi, East Germany's Vast Spy Network, Dies at 92", STASI Decorations and Memorabilia, A Collector's Guide, Altenberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track,, Members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, German people convicted of murdering police officers, German police officers convicted of murder, Perpetrators of political repression in the Second Spanish Republic, Recipients of the Patriotic Order of Merit (honor clasp), Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, Recipients of the Medal "For Distinction in Guarding the State Border of the USSR", Recipients of the Order of Georgi Dimitrov, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2016, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Gold for 20 years service (8 February 1965), This page was last edited on 6 February 2021, at 01:20. Die Dokumente, einmal mit dem Klarnamen Erich Mielke in Faksimile bei Wolfgang Kießling: In dieser Funktion wird Mielke erstmals in der Presse der Ostzone erwähnt. [72], At noon, the Soviet authorities terminated all tram and metro traffic into the Eastern sector and all but closed the sector borders to West Berlin to prevent more demonstrators from reaching the city centre. [168] When a journalist for Der Spiegel attempted to interview him in Plötzensee Prison, Mielke responded, "I want to go back to my bed"[169] (German: "Ich möchte in mein Bett zurück."). In einem von Mielkes Stahlschränken befand sich ein kleiner roter Koffer mit Dokumenten, die den langjährigen DDR-Staatschef Erich Honecker hätten diffamieren können.[12]. November 1989 trat Mielke zusammen mit der gesamten Regierung Stoph zurück, am folgenden Tag zusammen mit dem gesamten Politbüro des ZK der SED. [172] Days before his release, the Public Prosecutor of Berlin announced that he was "not interested in chasing an 87-year-old man anymore" and that all further prosecution of Mielke had been indefinitely suspended. But then came the mass arrests of Social Democrats who opposed the merger, who, "were joined by people who had been denounced for making anti-communist or anti-Soviet remarks, among their number hundreds who were as young as fourteen years. Together with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, we will do everything to support this just battle. [77], Meanwhile, when the East German Politburo met on 8 July, it seemed that Ulbricht would be deposed as Party General Secretary. Everywhere, the demands were the same: free elections by secret ballot.[72]. I became acquainted with many comrades of the Federation of World Communist Parties and the War Council of the Special Commission of the Comintern. Dezember wurde Mielke aus der SED ausgeschlossen, am 7. [128], During the 1980s, Wiegand secretly blackmailed a Libyan diplomat into spying on his colleagues. Never did I sense that the people were afraid of the MfS. According to John Koehler, "Mielke was a special protege of Kippenberger's having taken to his paramilitary training with the enthusiasm of a Prussian Junker. Mielke ran the Stasi surveillance force, and was responsible for ordering the surveillance of tens of thousands of German citizens, to the point where Stasi employees numbered almost 100,000. [72], In response to orders, the Soviet Occupation Forces, the Stasi and the Kasernierte Volkspolizei went on the attack. [9] Under Ernst Thälmann's leadership, the KPD was completely obedient to Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and from 1928 the Party was both funded and controlled by the Comintern in Moscow. November 1992 vor der 27. Mielke was appointed to his staff with the rank of State Secretary. In a secret speech to top-ranking Stasi officers on 29 June, Mielke warned that, 'hostile opposing forces and groups have already achieved a measure of power and are using all methods to achieve a change in the balance of power. Klause's sentence was commuted to life in prison based upon his cooperation. There was, under the East German system, no provision for parliamentary oversight. The honor is dubious because... he signed so many. Local police would then turn the prisoner over to the Stasi agent, who would offer the West German a choice between espionage or incarceration.[100]. [168], During his incarceration, at JVA Moabit corrections officers supplied Mielke with a red telephone like the one in his office at Stasi Headquarters. "[71], Meanwhile, discontent among factory workers about the 10% increase of work quotas without a corresponding wage hike boiled over. Juni ("17 June Street") in honor of the uprising. Am 30. He was sentenced to death and shot by Red Army Colonel-General Pavel Batitsky on 23 December 1953. Kreikemeyers Frau wurde sieben Jahre später, nach ihrer 37. schriftlichen Anfrage, mitgeteilt, ihr Mann habe sich bereits kurze Zeit nach seiner Verhaftung in seiner Zelle erhängt. Mielke wurde sofort Leiter der Polizeiinspektion Berlin-Lichtenberg im sowjetischen Sektor. Erich Mielke's grave is outside the memorial section established at the entrance in 1951 by East German leaders for communist heroes. Schneider beginnt mit der Aussage, wenn man prototypisch für „all den Horror und das Leid der ehemaligen DDR einen einzelnen Namen nennen wollte, wäre es Erich Mielke“. Von 1953 bis 1989 war er erster Vorsitzender der Sportvereinigung Dynamo. [… unverständlich …] mal richtig erklären, warum man so hart sein muss, [und] all das Geschwafel, von wegen ‚Nicht hinrichten‘ und ‚Nicht Todesurteil‘, alles Käse is’, Genossen. [65], At the Rajk show trial, the prosecutor declared, "Noel Field, one of the leaders of American espionage, specialized in recruiting spies from among left-wing elements. It contained proof of Honecker's corrupt business practices, sexual activities, and how, as a member of the underground Communist Party of Germany during the Nazi years, he had been arrested by the Gestapo and had named names. The numbers of the wounded were given as 191 policemen, 126 demonstrators, and 61 bystanders. ↑ Ludwig Niethammer: Die Karriere eines deutschen Stalinisten Zum Tode von Erich Mielke, World Socialist Website. They blackmailed Nazi criminals who fled abroad after the war into spying for them. Er war ab 1946 einer der Hauptverantwortlichen für den Ausbau der Sicherheitsorgane der SBZ/DDR zu einem flächendeckenden Kontroll-, Überwachungs- und Unterdrückungssystem.Von 1957 bis zu seinem Rücktritt 1989 war Mielke Minister für … In what John Koehler has dubbed, "The Invisible Invasion", some West German citizens collaborated out of Marxist beliefs, but others were recruited through blackmail, greed, career frustrations, or sexual favors from Stasi operatives. German academe was shocked to learn that Heinrich Fink, professor of theology and vice-chancellor of East Berlin's Humboldt University, had been a Stasi informer since 1968. Mielke, however, managed to send a message to exiled KPD members and, in May 1939, escaped to Belgium. Willig crawled over and cradled the head of Captain Anlauf, who had taken two bullets in the neck. 1. Mielke personally interrogated her and, at one point, offered Mrs. Wallach immediate release if she named the members of her fictitious spy network. Furthermore, Mielke concealed his past and contemporaneous involvement with the NKVD NKGB, and the Nazi Organization Todt (which he asserted he'd infiltrated). "[57], The Soviet representatives falsely claimed that Kühnast, a jurist with an impeccable anti-Nazi record, had been an official of Roland Freisler's People's Court. Der Historiker Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk schrieb über diese Rede entgegen der herkömmlichen öffentlichen Interpretation: „Der spontane Ausruf, ‚Ich liebe doch alle Menschen …‚‘, richtete sich, was fast immer übersehen wird, allein an die Abgeordneten und war eine Reaktion darauf, ob er sie nun mit ‚Genossen’ anrede oder nicht. [162][163], Meanwhile, the Federal Constitutional Court announced that Mielke had also been indicted for having ordered two terrorist attacks by the Baader-Meinhoff Group against United States military personnel who were stationed on West German soil. Although the Public Prosecutor of Berlin learned of Mielke's presence and filed for his extradition, the Belgian Government refused to comply, regarding the assassinations of Captains Anlauf and Lenck as "a political crime. Rocks and bricks were hurled from the rooftops. Schlüssel, [28], Die New York Times veröffentlichte am 7. April 1934 gemäß § 205 StPO noch vor der Eröffnung des Hauptverfahrens eingestellt worden, da man seiner nicht habhaft werden konnte. Mielke continued, speaking of the "triumph" of the socialist economy, continuing all the while to address the members of the Volkskammer as "Comrades" (German: "Genossen"). "[14], In a 1931 biography written for the Cadre Division of the Comintern,[15] Mielke recalled, "We took care of all kinds of work; terror acts, protecting illegal demonstrations and meetings, arms-trafficking, etc. April wurde Gartenschläger von einem Stasi-Sonderkommando erschossen. They were equipped with special batons similar to electric cattle prods but much more powerful. Therefore, he expelled his main opponents, Zaisser, Hernstadt and Ackermann, from the Politburo, and thus strengthened his position further. Oktober 1990 wurde Mielke auf Antrag seines Anwalts wegen schlechter Haftbedingungen in die JVA Moabit verlegt, wo er für längere Zeit verblieb. According to John Koehler, "Provisional prison camps were set up to hold the thousands of Stasi victims. Dezember kam er unter dem Vorwurf der „Schädigung der Volkswirtschaft“ und des „Hochverrats durch verfassungsfeindliche Aktionen“ in Untersuchungshaft. ", "Rede von Stasi-Minister Erich Mielke in der DDR-Volkskammer, 13. In Moscow, Soviet Interior Minister Viktor Abakumov argued that a new secret police force would be demonized by Western governments and the media, which would paint the K-5 as a "new Gestapo." As they reached the door of the movie house, the policemen heard someone scream, "Schweinebacke! Zwar sind einige Fälle von Auftragsmorden in den Jahren nach der Wende bekannt geworden: So wurde in Berlin etwa der einstige Stellvertreter von Stasi-Chef Erich Mielke … In some cases, the tanks and the soldiers fired directly into the crowds. Ein Feature von Joachim Walther. "[155], Mielke's address to the Volkskammer remains the most famous broadcast in the history of German television. In 1948, Mielke was appointed as security chief of the German Economic Commission (German: Deutsche Wirtschaftskommission), the precursor to the future East German government. Mielke had to wait six more months before the details of the police action against his Berlin comrades reached Moscow. [175], Writing in 2003, Australian journalist Anna Funder declared, "The name Mielke has now come to mean 'Stasi.' Von 1957 bis zu seinem Rücktritt 1989 war Mielke Minister für Staatssicherheit. [10] In keeping with Stalin's policy towards Social Democracy, the KPD considered all SPD members to be "social fascists". They were used against him in his trial for murder."[60]. Auf einem Käffchen mit dem KURIER verriet er, wie seine Karriere begann – mit dem Sohn von Stasi-Chef Erich Mielke. He earned his spurs in Spain. But he was cleared in record time and by the end of June the Soviets had installed him as a station commander of the newly formed Volkspolizei (Vopo), the People's Police. Das Landgericht Berlin stellte es zunächst ein, weil Mielke flüchtig war. In seiner stark gefälschten und geschönten Biografie von 1951 kaschierte er seine Aktivitäten für die Organisation Todt als Tätigkeit in einer „Arbeiterkompanie“. Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (* 28. On 18 December 1948, shortly after the birth of their son Frank Mielke, Erich and Gertrud married in a civil ceremony. During the winter of 1936, Janka was summoned by the SIM and interrogated by Mielke. After he was released from prison Mielke was obliged to move into a two-room, 600-square-foot flat. [1] Die sechsköpfige Familie – Mielke hatte drei Geschwister – bewohnte eine 30-Quadratmeter-Wohnung. Arrest warrants were issued for ten others who had fled, including Mielke, Ziemer, Ulbricht, Kippenberger, and Neumann. And, when necessary, without a court judgment."[45]. Mai 2000 ebenda) war ein deutscher kommunistischer Politiker. Das ist doch nur eine formale Frage! According to Anna Funder, "There was a sea of red flags, a torchlight procession, and tanks. We have just discovered shelves of files on Nazis stretching over four miles. Former Stasi Colonel Rainer Wiegand told me he was horrified when Mielke compared the situation with that of China two months earlier. Theoretisch hätte die Richtigkeit dieser Information schwerste Nachteile für Mielke gehabt haben müssen: Wer behauptete, mit der „ruhmreichen Sowjetarmee“ nach Deutschland zurückgekommen zu sein, in Wahrheit aber im westlichen Exil Kontakt zu einem amerikanischen Spion unterhalten hatte, musste ein Verräter sein. Mai 2000 in einem Altenpflegeheim in Berlin-Neu-Hohenschönhausen. In February 1992, Mielke was put on trial for the first degree murders of Captains Anlauf and Lenck as well as the attempted murder of Senior Sergeant Willig. On 14 January 1950, Marshal Vasili Chuikov announced that all Soviet "internment camps" on German soil had been closed. [149] Mielke responded by putting the last nail into Honecker's coffin. Mielke also pleased Kippenberger by being an exceptional student in classes on the arts of conspiratorial behavior and espionage, taught by comrades who had studied at the secret M-school of the GRU in Moscow. ", "Erich Mielke, Powerful Head of Stasi, East Germany's Vast Spy Network, Dies at 92. Erich Mielke und das Ministerium für Staatssicherheit . Er verließ die Schule wegen Schwierigkeiten beim Erlernen der klassisc… In the 1993 trial of Mielke, the court gave the defense the benefit of the doubt and threw out a number of suspect confessions."[33]. They were then to return to their homes and await further instructions. "[22] Mielke and Ziemer were informed that, after the assassinations were completed, a diversion would assist in their escape. ), S. 96–98 und Otto, S. 488–497. Der Minister für Staatssicherheit gefiel sich als aufrichtiger Bewunderer von Feliks Dzierzynski, dem Gründer des sowjetischen Sicherheitsdienstes Tscheka. November 1989". Verbürgt sind jedoch spätere Kontakte der KPD-Gruppe in Toulouse, wo Mielke sich Leisner nannte, zur Parteiführung in Moskau. During the meeting, Max Matern gave a Luger pistol to fellow lookout Max Thunert and said, "Now we're getting serious... We're going to give Schweinebacke something to remember us by."[20]. Ab Ende 1989 mehrmals in Untersuchungshaft genommen, verurteilte ihn das Landgericht Berlin 1993 wegen Mordes an zwei Polizeioffizieren im Jahr 1931 zu einer Freiheitsstrafe von sechs Jahren. After Fink's Stasi connections came to light, he was summarily fired. "[13], According to John Koehler, members of the Parteiselbstschutz "served as bouncers at Party meetings and specialized in cracking heads during street battles with political enemies. Aber seine Frau hatte das Tier weggegeben und war selbst ausgezogen.“[29]. She was released during the Khrushchev thaw in October 1955. In a handwritten autobiography prepared after World War II, Mielke recalled, "During my stay in the S.U. "[38], Upon the defeat of the Spanish Republic, Mielke fled across the Pyrenees Mountains to France, where he was interned at Camp de Rivesaltes, Pyrénées-Orientales. Zwischen den Kränzen für den Stasi-Chef vom “Zentralkomitee der KPD”, “von den Freunden und Veteranen des KfS” (des sowjetischen KGB), lag auch einer für den Menschen Erich Mielke. Years later, Janka recalled, "While I was fighting at the front, shooting at the Fascists, Mielke served in the rear, shooting Trotskyites and Anarchists. November 1989. In 1950, as a response to the outbreak of the Korean War, West Germany was also permitted to join NATO, which was then upgraded into a military alliance. "[118], With this in mind, Mielke ordered the Stasi to finance, arm, and train, "urban guerrillas," from numerous countries. World War I veterans taught the novices how to handle pistols, rifles, machine guns, and hand grenades. April 2000 um 10:03 Uhr Seine Frau wollte ihn nicht länger pflegen : Erich Mielke sitzt nun im Altenheim Berlin (dpa). was heavily staffed by agents of the Soviet NKVD, whose Spanish rezident was General Aleksandr Mikhailovich Orlov. An estimated 100 people reportedly attended the funeral. In a handwritten biography written for the Soviet secret police, Mielke described his father as "a poor, uneducated woodworker," and said that his mother died in 1911. Soon after, the DWK was absorbed into the newly created Ministry for State Security. The Soviets simply distrusted all Communists who had sought exile in the West. Fearing that they would lose the elections scheduled for the autumn, the leadership of the KPD asked for and received Stalin's permission to merge the two Parties. They shredded the files until the paper shredders overheated and shorted out. The last work, which was accomplished by a Comrade and myself, was the Bülowplatz Affair" (German: "Wir erledigten hier alle möglichen Arbeiten, Terrorakte, Schutz illegaler Demonstrationen und Versammlungen, Waffentransport und reinigung usw. Aber weil ich Humanist bin, deshalb habe ich solche Auffassungen. [82], SED Minister of Justice Max Fechner was personally arrested by Mielke and replaced by Hilde Benjamin, who was known to East German citizens as "Red Hilde", "The Red Freisler," and as, "The Red Guillotine," for her role as a judge in the SED's show trials. Although it was not connected to the outside world, Mielke enjoyed having imaginary conversations with non-existent Stasi agents. August 1931, Besuch in Mielkes Büro. Mielke-Beerdigung im Jahr 2000, Strafverfahren gegen Erich Mielke wegen Heimtückemord am Bülow-Platz in Berlin am 9.