However, this policy necessarily meant war with not only the Byzantine Empire but the Muslim Fatimid Caliphate as well, who claimed southern Italy as within their sphere influence. German: Otto II. "Otto Neurath - Der rote Elefant" lautet der Titel der 54-minütigen TV-Dokumentation. With his older brothers dead, the two-year old Otto II's became the Kingdom's crown prince and Otto I's heir apparent.  Emir Abu al-Qasim, who had declared a Holy War (jihad) against the Empire, retreated when he noticed the unexpected strength of Otto II's troops when the Emperor was not far from Rossano Calabro. Margrave Odo, commander of the Eastern March, taught the young crown prince the art of war and the kingdom's legal customs. In 966, The Doge of Venice Pietro IV married a relative of Otto I.  He and his advisor, Bishop Abraham of Freising, conspired with the Duke of Poland Mieszko I and the Duke of Bohemia Boleslaus II against Otto II in 974. With his rule north of the Alps secured and with the birth of his heir, Otto II shifted his focus to Italy. In September 978, Otto II retaliated against Lothair by invading France with the aid of Charles.  In fact, Otto is much more likely to have inherited the epithet from his half-uncle Conrad the Red, who died the year he was born and from whom he is also likely to have inherited some property. Otto II was born in 955, the third son of the King of Germany Otto I and his second wife Adelaide of Italy. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag vom 4. Henry II's claims were supported by Archbishop Egbert of Trier, Archbishop Gisilher of Magdeburg, and Bishop Dietrich I of Metz. Die Rixdorfer Blasmusik, Der Zackige Otto – Die Rixdorfer Blasmusik ... II. Hildebald of Worms, who had been appointed as Otto II's Chancellor in 977 and then as Bishop of Worms in 979, was also not from a noble family. (*955/ 983) und einer Handvoll Überlebender ein vor Anker liegendes Schiff zu erreichen. Otto the Great also forced the king and his heir apparent Harald Bluetooth to convert to Christianity. King of Germany. In early 984, Henry II escaped from his imprisonment by the Bishop of Utrecht. In 973, however, Otto I died. When Otto II sent an imperial representative, Count Sicco, to secure his release, Crescentius I and Cardinal-Deacon Franco Ferrucci, who would subsequently become Boniface VII, an antipope, had Benedict murdered while still in prison. schreiben und lesen konnte?  Boniface VII was then summarily excommunicated for his unsuccessful attempt to take the papacy. While Otto I had secured succession of the throne, he had violated the Kingdom's unwritten law that succession rights could only be granted to a child who has reached the age of majority.  According to one of the chroniclers of the time, he was given the epithet of the "Red" when in 981 he invited the most troublesome of the Roman families to a banquet, and proceeded to butcher them at dinner. ‚der Rote‘ oder ‚der Blutdurstige‘.  He sent his nephew Otto I, Duke of Swabia and Bavaria, back to Germany with the news of the defeat and to call the German nobles to the assembly, but his emissary died en route on November 1, 982, in Lucca. Instead, Otto II hoped to subordinate the Bavarian line of Ottonians to his Imperial authority. With both Otto the Great and Count Reginar III dead, it appears Otto II desired a fresh start with the two sons. Otto II also continued the work of Otto I in subordinating the Catholic Church to Imperial control. Prior to his appointment, Otto had been a long-time opponent of Henry II's expanding influence in Swabia. During his educational period in Hohenheim he became a part-time member of the Allgemeine-SS on 1.11.1933. Otto II attacked Harald's forces, but the joint Danish-Norwegian army repelled the German army. When Otto the Great died, the smooth succession to the imperial throne of Otto II had long been guaranteed. Before Henry II's civil war in southern Germany erupted, Otto II was faced with disputes in western Germany. Dezember 983 in Rom) aus dem Adelsgeschlecht der Liudolfinger war römisch-deutscher Kaiser von 973 bis 983.. Bereits in jungen Jahren wurde Otto durch seinen Vater Otto den Großen 961 zum Mitkönig und 967 zum Mitkaiser erhoben, um ihm die Nachfolge zu sichern. Date of Birth: the end of 955. ‚der Rote‘ oder ‚der Blutdurstige‘. Pietro IV's younger son, Vitale Candiano, survived however, and fled to Otto II's court in Saxony with plans to depose the new pro-Byzantine Doge, Pietro I Orseolo.  Otto II's money and possessions were divided among the Catholic Church, the poor of the Empire, his mother Adelaide and sister Matilda, and those nobles loyal to him. Otto I then sent word for Otto II to join him in Italy. Date of Death: 7 Decemb Das Herzogtum Franken Das Herzogtum Franken behielt Otto ein und unterstellte es der Königsherrschaft. Otto continued his father's policies of promoting a strong monarchy in Germany and of extending the influence of his house in Italy.  According to the historian Muslim Ibn al-Athir, Imperial casualties numbered around 4,000. In 979 Benedict VII's position as ruler of Rome was threatened, forcing the Pope to withdraw from and seek the aid of the Emperor. With domestic affairs settled, Otto II would focus his attention from 980 onward to annexing the whole of Italy into the Empire. As early as 980 Otto II demanded a fleet from the city of Pisa to help him carry out his war in southern Italy, and in September 981 he marched into southern Italy. During his first seven years as Emperor, he was constantly occupied with maintaining Imperial power against internal rivals and external enemies. However, the fire soon spread to Saint Mark's Basilica, resulting in the greater part of the city being burnt. After almost two years in Germany, Otto I made a third expedition to Italy in 966. With Henry II deposed, in July 976 Otto II issued far-reaching edicts on the reorganization of the southern German duchies. Though established by Otto I, the exact details of the diocese's boundaries were left to Otto II and his aides. Henry II mobilized the Saxon nobility against Otto II. In the decade since his death, Otto I's life work of converting the Slavs was undone. Seeing an opportunity to fully incorporate Venice into the Empire, Otto II agreed. Otto II followed the policy of his father in expanding the importance of the Church in his Empire, in particular the importance of monasticism and monasteries. After five years away, the Imperial family returned to Saxony in August 972. Als einziger Herrscher in nachkarolingischer Zeit wurde Otto II. 967 Im Das frühere Mittelalter kannte keine Familiennamen. , zum Mitkönig Henry I, Bishop of Augsburg, and the newly appointed Carinthian Duke Henry III joined Henry II in rebellion, forcing Otto II to return from Bohemia. Since the 960s the island had been under Muslim rule as the Emirate of Sicily, a state of the Fatimid Caliphate. Instead, Otto II named as Duke his nephew Otto, son of his half-brother Liudolf, Duke of Swabia. Otto II then prepared for a new campaign against the Muslims and obtained a settlement with the Republic of Venice, whose assistance he needed following the destruction of his army at Stilo.  While Otto I had secured succession of the throne, he had violated the Kingdom's unwritten law that succession rights could only be granted to a child who has reached the age of majority. However, the fire soon spread to Saint Mark's Basilica, resulting in the greater part of the city being burnt. Following Otto II's death in 983, Theophanu, as her son Otto III's regent, would name John as Otto III's tutor. With no clear successor, Henry II demanded that Otto II name him as the new Duke of Swabia. Accepting the Pope's call for aid, Otto II and Theophanu, along with their infant son Otto III, prepared for a march south across the Alps. These measures and the unusual size of the abbey perhaps suggest that Memleben may have been intended as an Imperial Mausoleum for the Ottonians. The Church and its organs served as supporting and stabilizing factor in the Empire's structure. Født omkring 890. Free from his confinement, he seized the infant Otto III and, as a member of the ruling Ottonian dynasty, claimed the regency of the Empire for himself. Otto III was crowned by Willigis, the Archbishop of Mainz, and John, the Archbishop of Ravenna. "der Grosse" VON SACHSEN (Liudolf.) Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed. The early death of Otto II and the ensuing events proved to be a serious test for Empire. The two had at least five children: Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor. She would later appoint John as the bishop of Piacenza, and would send him to Constantinople to arrange for a marriage between Otto III and a Byzantine princess. With peace concluded, Otto II returned to Aachen to celebrate Pentecost, and then moved towards Nijmegen. The marriage brought the Empire and Venice into close relationship, with Otto I, in 967, granting a series of commercial agreements to Venice in general and to Pietro IV's family in particular. Following the suppression of Henry II's rebellion, Otto II used the Empire's monasteries as the location for the treason trials. In regard to his Italian policy, Otto II went beyond the goals of his father. The marriage brought the Empire and Venice into close relationship, with Otto I, in 967, granting a series of commercial agreements to Venice in general and to Pietro IV's family in particular.  The Emperor's army besieged and captured the Byzantine city of Taranto, the administrative center of Apulia, in March 982. Pope Benedict VI, who had been appointed by Otto I, had been imprisoned by the Romans in Castel Sant'Angelo. He is considered the top ace of that war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories, more than any other pilot. The situation south of the Alps was chaotic. He was succeeded as Emperor by his three-year-old son Otto III, plunging the Empire into a political crisis. On April 14, 972, the sixteen-year-old Otto II was married to the fourteen-year-old Eastern princess, and Theophanu was crowned empress by the Pope.. Following his coronation, a rift developed between Otto II and his mother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy. Beobachtungen zur Symbolik der Farbe Rot in schriftlichen Quellen des Mittelalters. It appears Otto II intended to end the Bavarian Ottonians' secular control of Bavaria. By 976, Henry II returned to Bavaria. Otto II had only one known wife. With his newly obtained power, the young ruler was no longer willing to accept German supremacy over his kingdom. am 28.November 912, † am 7. This Ottonian defeat, the worst in the history of the Empire at the time, greatly weakened Imperial power in southern Italy. He died on August 4, 1156 in Ensdorf, Amberg-Sulzbach, Bayern, Germany. Otto II then prepared for a new campaign against the Muslims and obtained a settlement with the Republic of Venice, whose assistance he needed following the destruction of his army at Stilo.  However, this policy necessarily meant war not only with the Byzantine Empire but with the Muslim Fatimid Caliphate, who claimed southern Italy as within their sphere influence. Otto II had been king of Germany for twelve years and Emperor for five at the time of Otto the Great's death. Otto II., römischer Kaiser, geb. Otto married Elisabeth Rufus (born Strölin) at marriage place. John W. Bernhardt, in Gerd Althoff, Johannes Fried, Patrick J. Geary, eds. After having ruled Venice for four years, Pietro I voluntarily abdicated to become a monk, allowing the pro-Ottonian Vitale to return to Venice as Doge in 977, restoring the city's friendly relationship with the Empire. Als einziger Herrscher in nachkarolingischer Zeit wurde Otto II. Sophie I, Abbess of Gandersheim and Essen, born 975, died 1039. Otto II spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening Imperial rule in Germany and extending the borders of the Empire deeper into southern Italy. Otto II stayed in Italy to further address his military campaigns.  With the support of Norwegian troops, Harald was able to cross the Danish border into Germany, defeating the German forces stationed in the north. Wickham, Chris. A popular revolt, however, forced Boniface VII to flee to Constantinople, taking a vast treasure with him. One of the most important such monks was John Philagathus (the future Antipope John XVI). Before the imperial family celebrated Christmas together in Ravenna, Otto II received the Iron Crown of Lombardy as the King of Italy. The Byzantine Emperor objected to Otto's use of the title "Emperor". In part, the Obrodite revolt was successful: The princely family, though in part remaining Christian, dissolved Christian institutions. Otto II then brought the rebels before the Imperial Diet in Quedlinburg on March 31, 978. Sohn des Königs OTTO I. The Ottonian defeat, the worst in the history of the Empire at the time, greatly weakened Imperial power in southern Italy.  With the French army in sight, Otto II and Theophanu fled to Cologne and then to the Duchy of Saxony. Otto der Rote (955–983), Liudolfinger und römisch-deutscher Kaiser, siehe Otto II. Im Roten Wien der 1920er Jahre war der Nationalökonom, Wissenschaftstheoretiker und Arbeiter- und Volksbildner der bunte Hund, Chef der Siedlerbewegung und des … A daughter, a twin to Otto, who died before October 8, 980. Otto II spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening Imperial rule in Germany and extending it deeper into Italy. Thietmar blames the uprising on maltreatment of the Slavs by the Germans: "Warriors, who used to be our servants, now free as a consequence of our injustices.  Otto II's money and possessions were divided among the Catholic Church, the poor of the Empire, his mother Adelaide and sister Matilda, and those nobles loyal to him. Without consulting Otto II, Henry II named his cousin Henry as the new Bishop of Augsburg. In Pavia, Otto II and his mother, the dowager empress Adelaide of Italy, were reconciled after years of being apart.  The imperial family was joined by Otto II's sister Matilda, Abbess of Quedlinburg, King Conrad of Burgundy and his wife Matilda of France, Duke Hugh Capet of France, Duke Otto of Swabia and Bavaria, and other high secular and religious officials from Germany, Italy and France. After having ruled Venice for four years, Pietro I voluntarily abdicated to become a monk, allowing the pro-Ottonian Vitale to return to Venice as Doge in 977, restoring the city's friendly relationship with the Empire. Ehe mit der Adelheid von Hoch-Burgund, Tochter von König Rudolf II. Otto II was made joint-ruler of Germany in 961, at an early age, and his father named him co-Emperor in 967 to secure his succession to the throne.  Henry II's claims were supported by Archbishop Egbert of Trier, Archbishop Gisilher of Magdeburg, and Bishop Dietrich I of Metz.  Otto III's right to the throne, however, was supported by Archbishop Willigis of Mainz and the Dukes of Saxony, Bavaria, and Swabia. Otto II. The death of Pandulf in 981 allowed the Sicilian Emir Abu al-Qasim to increase his raids, hitting targets in Apulia and Calabria. Otto II's three-year-old son Otto III was crowned as King of Germany in Aachen on Christmas Day in 983, three weeks after his father's death. Die Archäologie bekennt Farbe. In return, Otto II appointed Charles as Duke and promised to support him in claiming the French throne.  Following his coronation, a rift developed between Otto II and his mother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy. This appointment elevated the descendants of Otto the Great above those of Henry I in the selection process, further dividing Otto II and Henry II. The Emperor sensed the far-reaching ambitions of his cousin and denied his request. Events . Otto II convened the Imperial Diet in mid-July at Dortmund. 6. Sein Name bedeutet im Germanisch-Althochdeutschen „der Besitzer des Erbgutes“. Помоћу Wot-Life.com можете пратити развој кланова и играча у игри World of Tanks. Conrad (c. 922 – 10 August 955), called the Red (German: Konrad der Rote), was Duke of Lorraine from 944 until 953. Dirk Dautzenberg, Actor: Michael Kramer. countess Palatine of L... King of Germany (961-983), Holy Roman Emperor (973-983), King of Italy (980-983). With the change in leadership, Otto II was reluctant to renew the city's commercial agreements which his father had previously granted to the city. Place of Birth: unknown. The Slavic territories east of the Elbe would remain pagan for over a century before further missionary work resumed: it would not be until the 12th century that the churches of Havelberg and Brandenburg would be reestablished. From the death of Otto the Great until Easter 974, Adelaide accompanied the Emperor at all times, traveling throughout the Empire with him. Unlike his father, Otto II did not have any brothers to contest his claims to the throne. Unable to flee back to his stronghold in Sicily due an Imperial naval blockade, al-Qasim faced the Imperial army in a pitched battle south of Crotone at Cape Colonna on July 14, 982. On November 12, 973, Burchard III died with no heir: his union to Hadwing, sister of Henry II, had produced no children. However, Vitale's reign was short (less than two years) and he too voluntarily abdicated to become a monk. (regierte von 936-973) und dessen gl… To fulfill these tasks, Otto II strengthened the legal integrity and economic independence of the bishops from the secular nobility. Otto II was later crowned by his uncle Bruno the Great, Archbishop of Cologne, at Aachen Cathedral on May 26, 961. Im Jahre 961 setzte der Vater die Wahl des Sohnes, Ottos II., zum Mitkönig sowie 967 die Krönung zum Mitkaiser durch. Otto II (Count) of ZUTPHEN aka Otto `der Reiche' Born: ? ), Reference: 1.1 10. The brothers Reginar IV, Count of Mons, and Lambert I, Count of Louvain, demanded that the Emperor restore their confiscated inheritance in the Duchy of Lorraine. Henry II's four-year-old son, also named Henry, was sent to Hildesheim to study for an ecclesiastical career. und Mutter des anderen ) deutsch-römischen Kaisers zu einer der einflussreichsten Herrscherinnen des Mittelalters werden. With his older brothers dead, the two-year old Otto II's became the Kingdom's crown prince and Otto I's heir apparent. OTTO von Franken, son of KONRAD "der Rote" Duke of Lotharingia, Graf in Franconia & his wife Liutgard of Germany (-4 Nov 1004, bur [Bruchsal]). Under a new Duke, Bavaria would remain a remote area of the Empire. Father of Adelheid I, Abbess of Quedlinburg; Sophie I, Abbess of Gandersheim; Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor and Mathilde of Germany. Instead, Otto II named as Duke his nephew Otto, son of his half-brother Liudolf, Duke of Swabia. Then, Pandulf's nephew Pandulf II was given Benevento when Otto II partitioned Landulf IV's territory, with Landulf IV keeping Capua. Begraben: Rom; St. Peter (Vatikanische Grotten) 3.  While Otto II was in Rome overseeing the election of a new pope, a malaria outbreak in central Italy prevented the resumption of military activity in southern Italy. The domestic problems Otto the Great faced between 963 and 972 had not been resolved by his death. " In the Obotrite territories along the Elbe River, the Luticians initiated a revolt aimed at the abolition of feudal rule and Christianity, drawing upon considerable support by the Obodrite populace and their leader Mstivoj. Otto II attempted on several occasions to reunify the Lombard principalities politically and ecclesiastically into his Empire after Pandulf's death. Even after his coronation, Otto II remained in the shadow of his overbearing father. Otto von Wittelsbach was born about 1083 in Bayern, Germany, son of - Otto (IV,I) Ekkehardson Graf von Wittelsbach Pfalzgraf von Baiern and Richardis von Weimar Orlamunde. Otto II's troops marched on Byzantine-controlled Apulia in January 982 with the purpose of annexing the territory into his Empire. The effects were disastrous enough to cause the ruling Venetian families to surrender to Otto II, but Otto II's untimely death that year prevented such action. Although Otto II had succeeded peacefully to the throne, internal divisions of power still remained unaddressed. His other advisers lacked support from the Empire's various Dukes. The arrival of a minor on the Imperial throne threw the Empire into confusion, allowing Otto III's mother, the Byzantine Princess Theophanu, to reign as his regent. The ruling Kalbid dynasty had conducted raids against Imperial territories in southern Italy. When Harald became king in 958, he expanded the control of his kingdom into Norway, becoming king there in 970. The Coloprini pleaded with the Emperor for support. OTTO der Große begründete die Tradition der Verbindung von ostfränkisch-deutscher This was not enough for the young Bavarian Duke, who wished to extend his influence in the Duchy of Swabia as his father had under Otto the Great. Detailed statistics of player Der_Rote_Otto in World of Tanks: battles fought, victory rate, player achievements … Otto II had only one known wife. A popular revolt, however, forced Boniface VII to flee to Constantinople, taking a vast treasure with him. From the death of Otto the Great until Easter 974, Adelaide accompanied the Emperor at all times, traveling throughout the Empire with him. mf Rudolf II av Burgund. On May 8, the nobles of the Empire assembled before Otto II and, according to the Saxon Chronicler Widukind of Corvey, "elected" Otto II as his father's successor.  Despite neither side obtaining a clear victory, Otto II felt his honor was sufficiently restored and opened peace negotiations with the French King. Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. - http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#OttoIIdied983. Otto II. Though the nominal co-ruler of the Empire, he was denied any role in its administration. Peace was finally concluded between Otto II and Lothair in 980: in return for renouncing his claims on Lorraine, Otto II would recognize Lothair's son Louis V as the rightful heir to the French throne.. Otto II gave the newly diminished Duchy of Bavaria to his relative Otto, the Duke of Swabia, and appointed Henry III, son of the former Bavarian Duke Berthold, as Duke of Carinthia. These agreements strengthened Venice's tie to the Western Empire, which greatly angered the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimisces as Venice controlled all sea trade between Western Europe and the Byzantine Levant in the East. Otto II then had Charles crowned as King of France by Theodoric I, Bishop of Metz.  He met with little resistance on French territory, devastating the land around Rheims, Soissons, and Laon. He was generous to the church and aided the spread of Christianity in many ways. With Otto II busy suppressing revolts in Germany, the Venetians opposed to Pietro IV found their opportunity to depose him. Brother of Heinrich, duke of Bavaria; Bruno von Sachsen and Mathilde, Abbess Of Quedlinburg In September 978, Otto II retaliated against Lothair by invading France with the aid of Charles.  According to the German chronicler Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg, the decades-long, forced Germanization and Christianization of the Slavs associated with these two churches was the reason for their destruction. von Ober-Lothringen, aus dem Geschlecht der Matfriede Otto (1015–1055), Graf im … A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto II was the youngest and sole surviving son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy. A final meeting between Otto II and Adelaide was arranged shortly before Pentecost in 978, but a peaceful outcome was not achieved, forcing Adelaide to retire to Burgundy and to the protection of her brother King Conrad of Burgundy. The oratorio Der Durchzug durchs rote Meer (The Passage Through the Red Sea) at first went unnoticed and continued to be labelled as “no longer extant” even last year in the new article in MGG, though the autograph has been in the holdings of the British Library in London for more than a hundred years. Otto II., called the Red, was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death. In relation to the other members of his dynasty, Otto II was the grandson of Henry I, son of Otto I, father of Otto III, and a first-cousin once removed to Henry II. The situation south of the Alps was chaotic. Otto II appointed Willigis, the Archbishop of Mainz, to serve as his regent over Germany.