For this siege, James took a large number of cannons imported from Flanders. James’s ensuing reign was a controversial one, in part because of many political decisions that Parliament and the public found vexing: he spent lavishly, summoned Parliament only once between … [2], James II enthusiastically promoted modern artillery, which he used with some success against the Black Douglases. This infamous incident took the name of "the Black Dinner". He immediately seized the Livingston estates, but he maintained an uneasy peace with the powerful Douglas family until 1450, when he quarreled with William, 8th Earl of Douglas. James II (Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, 16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460) reigned as King of Scots from 1437 to 1460.He was the son of James I, King of Scots and of Joan Beaufort (daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and of Margaret Holland). James I, (born 1394—died February 20/21, 1437, Perth, Perth, Scotland), king of Scots from 1406 to 1437. He was popular with the commoners, with whom, like most of the Stewarts, he socialised often, in times of peace and war. The main engagements were at Brodick, on the Isle of Arran; Inverkip in Renfrew; and the Battle of Arkinholm. His ambitions to increase Scotland's standing saw him besiege Roxburgh Castle in 1460, one of the last Scottish castles still held by the English after the Wars of Independence. In the ensuing turmoil three rival families—the Crichtons, the Livingstons, and the Douglases—fought to gain control of the young king. He married Mary of Guelders (c1434-1463) 1 July 1449 in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom. Trevor, Meriol. James I (late July 1394 – 21 February 1437) was King of Scotland from 1406 to 1437. On 3 August, he was standing near one of these cannons, known as "the Lion", when it exploded and killed him. James was the third son of King James IV of Scotland and his wife Margaret Tudor, a daughter of Henry VII of England and sister of Henry VIII, and was the only legitimate child of James IV to survive infancy.He was born on 10 April 1512 at Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgowshire, and baptized the following day, receiving the titles Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The main account of Douglas's murder comes from the Auchinleck Chronicle, a near contemporary but fragmentary source. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-II-king-of-Scotland, British Broadcasting Corporation - Biography of James II, Rampant Scotland - Biography of King James II, Undiscovered Scotland - Biography of James II. Charles died in 1685 from apoplexy after converting to Catholicism on his deathbed. Robert Lindsay of Pitscottiestated i… The king, being a small child, had nothing to do with this. However, they were treacherously hurried to their doom, which took place by beheading in the castle yard of Edinburgh on 24 November, with the 10-year-old king pleading for their lives. [1] He was the son of King James I and Joan Beaufort. They had seven children: An unnamed son. Three years later James demolished the Douglas castles and confiscated their vast estates. [12], James II is the first Scots monarch for whom a contemporary likeness has survived, in the form of a woodcut showing his birthmark on the face. His ambitions to increase Scotland's standing saw him besiege Roxburgh Castle in 1460, one of the last Scottish castles still held by the English after the Wars of Independence. Many Flemings in Mary's suite remained in Scotland, and the relations between Scotland and Flanders, already friendly under James I, consequently became closer. On 25 March 1437, the six-year-old was formally crowned King of Scots at Holyrood Abbey.The Parliament of Scotland revoked alienations of crown property and prohibited them, without the consent of the Estates, that is, until James II's eighteenth birthday. He was the last Roman Catholic king of Scotland, England, or Ireland. Having no legitimate children, Charles was succeeded by his brother James, who reigned in England and Ireland as James II, and in Scotland as James VII. In 1449 James assumed power and one of his first acts was to imprison Sir Alexander Livingston and forfeit his lands. Along with the forfeiture of the Albany Stewarts in the reign of James I, the destruction of the Black Douglases saw royal power in Scotland take a major step forward. Ascended to the throne: February 21, 1437 aged 6 years. Mother: Joan Beaufort. [citation needed]. James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) was nominal King of Scots from April 4, 1406, and reigning King of Scots from May 1424 until February 21, 1437. Updates? Prior to becoming king he held the title Duke of Rothesay. 2 Suppose a man comes into your meeting wearing a gold ring and fine clothes, and a poor man in filthy old clothes also comes in. He survived the civil strife of the first half of his reign and eventually emerged as a masterful ruler who consolidated his power throughout the kingdom. He was succeeded by his son, al… In the months that followed, the Parliament of Scotland declared the extensive Douglas lands forfeit and permanently annexed them to the crown, along with many other lands, finances and castles. A single member of the family escaped the general proscription—James, the eldest son of Sir Alexander, who, after arrest and escape to the highlands, was restored in 1454 to the office of chamberlain to which he had been appointed in the summer of 1449. In February 1452 he stabbed the earl to death. [2], In Scotland the king's marriage led to his emancipation from tutelage, and to the downfall of the Livingstons. Ambitious plans to take Orkney, Shetland and the Isle of Man nonetheless did not succeed. During the 13 years (1424–37) in which he had control of the government, he established the first strong monarchy the Scots had known in nearly a century. [11], In 1458 an Act of Parliament commanded the king to modify his behaviour, but one cannot say how his reign would have developed had he lived longer. [15] James's son became king as James III and Mary acted as regent until her own death three years later. [2] James's nickname, Fiery Face, referred to a conspicuous vermilion birthmark on his face which appears to have been deemed by contemporaries an outward sign of a fiery temper. According to its account, the king accused the Earl (probably with justification) of forging links with John Macdonald, 11th earl of Ross (also Lord of the Isles), and Alexander Lindsay, 4th earl of Crawford. He also had to deal with the English, whose fingers were in Scotland’s pie. James finally assumed his royal duties upon his marriage to Mary of Gueldres in 1449. Attempts to curb the Douglases' power took place in 1451, during the absence of William Douglas, 8th earl of Douglas from Scotland, and culminated with the murder of Douglas at Stirling Castle on 22 February 1452. The earl fled into a long English exile. The best-researched biography. James I was assassinated on 21 February 1437. James grew up in Dunfermline Abbey and spent most of his early childhood under his mother’s care until her death in 1401 when he was just seven. His father was Charles I (who was executed in 1649) and his mother was Henrietta Maria. However, his murder of the earl of Douglas leaves a stain on his reign. Favoritism Forbidden. James married Mary of Guelders at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, on 3 July 1449. On 3 August, he was attempting to fire one of these cannons, known as "the Lion", when it exploded and killed him. Initially the Scots won a victory at the Battle of Haddon Rig in August 1542. James II, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1685 to 1688. While cultivating alliances abroad and negotiating with both the Yorkists and the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses, James assaulted Berwick in 1455, mounted a sally into Northumberland in 1456, raided the English-held Isle of Man and attacked Berwick again in 1457. A generally favourable work by a professional biographer. James was their second son, the older being the future Charles II. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It has also been argued that some of the unpopular policies of James III originated in the late 1450s. He does not appear to have inherited his father's taste for literature, which was shared by at least two of his sisters; but the foundation of the University of Glasgow during his reign, by Bishop Turnbull, shows that he encouraged learning; and there are also traces of his endowments to St. Salvator's, the new college of Archbishop Kennedy at St Andrews. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. The death of James's mother in 1541 removed any incentive for peace with England, and war broke out. James II enthusiastically promoted modern artillery, which he used with some success against the Black Douglases. The early life of James was dominated by the English Civil War and for James years in exile. A favourable work which presents James as forceful, but not tyrannical. After his death, and with a general lack of high-status earls in Scotland due to deaths, forfeiture or youth, political power became shared uneasily among William Crichton, 1st Lord Crichton, Lord Chancellor of Scotland (sometimes in co-operation with the Earl of Avondale), and Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar, who had possession of the young king as the warden of the stronghold of Stirling Castle. Scottish Monarch. James I belongs to the Royal House Stewart. In 1449 James II reached adulthood, but he had to struggle to gain control of his kingdom. There was little initial opposition to his accession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession. He was crowned in Holyrood Abbey by Abbot Patrick on 23 March 1437. The descendants of James II of England, Stuart monarch of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland and Kingdom of Ireland, are numerous.His last descendant in the legitimate line, Henry Benedict Stuart, died in 1807, but there are descendants in illegitimate lines to this day. Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1977. The queen, although hurt, managed to get to her six-year-old son, who was now king. the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament … Father: James I, King of Scotland. While abroad, James fought with both the French and Spanish armies. In the latter campaign he was killed during a siege of Roxburgh Castle. His first task was the restoration of monarchical authority. They include: He was Crowned on May 2 or 21, 1424. He had an elder twin, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, who lived long enough to receive a knighthood, but died in infancy. On 25 March 1437, the six-year-old was formally crowned King of Scots at Holyrood Abbey. [4] He possessed much of his father's restless energy. Some of his citizens did not like his religious ideas, leading a group of them to disobey and fight against him. [13], Negotiations for a marriage to Mary of Guelders began in July 1447, when a Burgundian envoy came to Scotland, and were concluded by an embassy under Crichton the chancellor in September 1448. London: Constable, 1988. They were released on 4 September only by making a formal agreement to put James in the custody of the Livingstons, by giving up her dowry for his maintenance, and confessing that Livingston had acted through zeal for the king's safety. James II is the son of James I and Joan Beaufort. Name: King James I of Scotland Father: Robert III, King of Scotland Mother: Annabella Drummond Relation to Elizabeth II: 15th great-grandfather House of: Stewart Born: July 25, 1394 at Dunfermline, Fife Ascended to the throne: April 4, 1406 aged 11 years Crowned: May 2 or 21, 1424 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire Married: Joan Beaufort, February 13, 1424 Children: 2 sons and 6 daughters Taking advantage of these events, Livingston placed Queen Joan and her new husband, Sir John Stewart, under "house arrest" at Stirling Castle on 3 August 1439. The queen, although hurt, managed to get to her six-year-old son, who was now king. (Born and died on 19 May 1450) James III of Scotland (10 July 1451 – 11 June 1488) The youngest of three sons, he was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond.His older brother David, Duke of Rothesay, died under suspicious circumstances while being detained by their uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany.His other brother, Robert, died young. The majority of Scottish birth, death and marriage records are held in the custody of the Registrar General for Scotland at New Register House in Edinburgh. Name: King James II of Scotland. James was killed at a siege of Roxburgh Castle, August 1460, when a cannon he lit exploded. James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633-16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. Douglas and Crichton continued to dominate political power, and the king continued to struggle to throw off their rule. There are separate guides to each of the registers which you can access at the links below. James was born in Holyrood Abbey. The marriage was celebrated at Holyrood on 3 July 1449. James then turned his attention to the English, who had renewed their claims to rule Scotland. Sir Alexander and his kinsmen were confined in different and distant castles. [5], James I was assassinated on 21 February 1437. Read a biography about King James II - a Stuart king of England, Scotland and Ireland who was overthrown in the 'Glorious Revolution' by William III. James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633-16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. On 21 February 1437, James I was assassinated and the six-year-old James immediately succeeded him as James II. James III Stewart of Scotland was born circa1451 in Scotland, United Kingdom to James II of Scotland (1430-1460) and Mary of Guelders (c1434-1463) and died 11 June 1488 at theBattle of Sauchieburn of unspecified causes. [8][9][10], Between 1455 and 1460 James II proved to be an active and interventionist king. According to legend, they came, and were entertained at the royal table, where James, still a little boy, was charmed by them. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. He was the youngest of three sons of King Robert III and Annabella Drummond, born 27 years after their marriage. James II, (born Oct. 16, 1430, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 3, 1460, Roxburgh Castle, Roxburgh), king of Scots from 1437 to 1460. 2 My brothers and sisters, believers in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ must not show favoritism. In 1449, he married Mary of Guelders, daughter of the Duke of Gelderland and together they had seven children. He attacked English outposts in Scotland in 1456 and 1460. James II, King of Scots was born on October 16, 1430, at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh, Scotland. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. They had seven children: By his unknown mistress, James also left one illegitimate son: James II has been depicted in plays, historical novels and short stories. James was married twice; his first wife was Anne Hyde, the daughter of the first Earl of Clarendon. The only surviving son of King James I, he succeeded to the throne at the age of six upon his father’s assassination (February 1437). That revolution, engendered by James’s Roman Catholicism, permanently established Parliament as the ruling power in England. James´s son became king as James III and Mary acted as regent until her own death three years later. James I, King of Scotland reigned over Scotland from April 4, 1406 to February 21, 1437. He acceded to the English throne upon the death of the heirless Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. He ascended to the throne at the tender age of 6, after the murder of his father. Omissions? Her great-uncle Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, settled sixty thousand crowns on his kinswoman, and her dower of ten thousand was secured on lands in Strathearn, Athole, Methven, and Linlithgow. James II (16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460) was King of Scotland from 1437 until his death. They include:[16], Colvin and Brown (1963), p. 819; Salter (1985), p. 17, John Stewart, 1st Earl of Mar and Garioch, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Scottish Monarchs – Kings and Queens of Scotland – James II", "Project Gutenberg's Two Penniless Princesses, by Charlotte M. Yonge", Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_II_of_Scotland&oldid=1004234154, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, John Stewart, Lord of Sticks (d. 21 September 1523), Appears as a background character in the children's fantasy novel, Charles James, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, This page was last edited on 1 February 2021, at 17:36. Born: Oct 16, 1430 at Holyrood. The Scots carried on with the siege, led by George Douglas, 4th earl of Angus, and the castle fell a few days later. James wanted to proceed quickly to the coronation, and was crowned with his wife at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685. The son of James I, he became known as 'James of the fiery face' due to a birth mark. Military campaigns ended indecisively, and some have argued that James stood in serious danger of being overthrown, or of having to flee the country. English Monarchs - Biography of James II. This bond, if it existed, created a dangerous axis of power of independently-minded men, forming a major rival to royal authority. Of his four sons, the eldest became James III. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He was loved by commoners for his social skills and able administration. Some of his citizens did not like his religious ideas, leading a group of them to disobey and fight against him. You can order an … By his first birthday his twin and only brother, Alexander, who was also the older twin, had died, thus making James the heir apparent and given the title Duke of Rothesay. Early life. This murder did not end the power of the Douglases, but rather created a state of intermittent civil war between 1452 and 1455. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [3], James was a politic, and singularly successful king. [citation needed], For this siege, James took a large number of cannons imported from Flanders. A tournament took place before James at Stirling, on 25 February 1449, between James, master of Douglas, another James, brother to the Laird of Lochleven, and two knights of Burgundy, one of whom, Jacques de Lalain, was the most celebrated knight-errant of the time. [6] He lived along with his mother and five of his six sisters (Margaret had left for France, where she had married the future Louis XI of France) at Dunbar Castle until 1439. James was the son and heir of King Robert III (reigned 1390–1406 [7], From 1437 to 1439 the king's first cousin Archibald Douglas, 5th earl of Douglas, headed the government as lieutenant-general of the realm. James I was king of Scotland (as James VI) before he became king of both England and Scotland. [2], In 1440, in the King's name, an invitation is said to have been sent to the young, 16-year-old 6th earl of Douglas and his younger brother, twelve-year-old David, to visit the king at Edinburgh Castle in November 1440. In the autumn Sir Alexander and other members of the family were arrested. James II, (born Oct. 16, 1430, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 3, 1460, Roxburgh Castle, Roxburgh), king of Scots from 1437 to 1460. James married Mary of Guelders at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, on 3 July 1449. Name : James II Born : 1430 Died : 1460 Category : Kings and Queens Finest Moment : The subjugation of the Douglas family, in 1455. Henry would not accept this condition and mobilised his army against Scotland. The only surviving son of King James I, he succeeded to the throne at the age of six upon his father’s assassination (February 1437). James II and VII. The king travelled the country and has been argued to have originated the practice of raising money by giving remissions for serious crimes. James II, King of Scotland was born 16 October 1430 in Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom to James I of Scotland (1394-1437) and Joan Beaufort (c1406-1445) and died 3 August 1460 in Roxburgh Castle, Scotland, United Kingdom of unspecified causes. Because he was too young to take control of the government, the strong central authority that his father had established quickly collapsed. [1] She bore him seven children, six of whom survived into adulthood. The Douglases, probably with his cooperation, used his coming of age as a way to throw the Livingstons out of the shared government, as the young king took revenge for the arrest of his mother (a means to remove her from political influence) that had taken place in 1439 and the assassination of his young Douglas cousins in which Livingston was complicit. The revenues from these lands enabled him to set up a strong central government and make improvements in the administration of justice. A French chronicler, Mathieu d'Escouchy, gives a graphic account of the ceremony and the feasts which followed. Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie stated in his history of James's reign that "as the King stood near a piece of artillery, his thigh bone was dug in two with a piece of misframed gun that brake in shooting, by which he was stricken to the ground and died hastily."[14]. Once the castle was captured James's widow, Mary of Guelders, ordered its destruction. He succeeded to the throne in 1437, at the age of six, when his father was murdered. The Parliament of Scotland revoked alienations of crown property and prohibited them, without the consent of the Estates, that is, until James II's eighteenth birthday. Corrections? James married Mary, daughter of the duke of Gueldres, in 1449. James had another child, John Stewart, Lord of Sticks, by an unknown mistress. James I of Scotland was the king of Scotland from 1406 to 1437. James was born on October 14th 1633. He was the last Roman Catholic king of Scotland, England, or Ireland. The Shadow of a Crown: The Life Story of James II of England and VII of Scotland. He survived the civil strife of the first half of his reign and eventually emerged as a masterful ruler who consolidated his power throughout the kingdom. James II: A Study in Kingship. His court officials (many of whom would rise to great influence in later years, often in former Douglas lands) then joined in the bloodbath, one allegedly striking out the earl's brain with an axe. But James's patronage of lands, titles and office to allies of the Douglases saw their erstwhile allies begin to change sides, most importantly the earl of Crawford after the Battle of Brechin, and in May 1455 James struck a decisive blow against the Douglases, and they were finally defeated at the Battle of Arkinholm. James II, King of Scots 1437 – 1460. Subsequently, the relations between Flanders and Scotland improved. His temper was also fiery. James was with his ar… His legislation has a markedly popular character. James II has been depicted in plays, historical novels and short stories. When Douglas refused to break the bond with Ross, James broke into a fit of temper and stabbed Douglas 26 times and threw his body out of a window. Between 1451 and 1455 he struggled to free himself from the power of the Douglases. At a parliament in Edinburgh on 19 January 1450, Alexander Livingston, a son of Sir Alexander, and Robert Livingston of Linlithgow were tried and executed on the Castle Hill. James finally had the freedom to govern as he wished, and one can argue that his successors as kings of Scots never faced such a powerful challenge to their authority again. James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death. Timeline for King James II of Scotland (1437 - 1460) English Monarch at the time. He was deposed in the Glorious Revolution (1688–89) and replaced by William III and Mary II.

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